The best fishing areas are the Danube and Tisza rivers, Lake Balaton, and various artificial ponds. The catch is composed mainly of carp, catfish, eel, and perch. The catch was 18, tons, 64% from aquaculture. Hungary imports around $15 – 20 million in seafood annually to meet demand. FORESTRY. W e estimated the GDP of various tourism r egions (10) in Hungary between 20(Figure 1) in order to compare this with the actual level of these regions’ development. Start studying Chapter 1 traditions and encounters. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.
In the centuries that followed, the development of literature in Hungary was determined by the course of European culture, from which sprung an abundance of court literature, chronicles and medieval stories.
The first great poets were born during the Renaissance. Janus Pannonius — is considered the first Hungarian poet, though he wrote his verses in Latin. In his time he was known throughout Europe as a leading figure in Hungarian literature. The Renaissance-Reformation was followed by Baroque literature. The life and career of the writer of The Peril of Sziget is an integral part of European baroque culture.
Hungarian literature for a long time imitated and adopted the artistic and literary trends of the great European cultures. The Age of Enlightenment, however, saw the blossoming of Hungarian poetry with similar styles emerging simultaneously with West European tendencies. This period thus marked a revival in the Hungarian language and culture.
By the beginning of the 19 th century, Hungarian literature developed from traditions that allowed for novel and original works to be produced. His childhood years were formative in that they stoked the passion and patriotism evident in his life and poetry.
He studied much and with apparent ease, though he constantly changed schools. He tried his hand at several things during a difficult youth, travelling across Hungary by foot amid a life of privation. From the age of 21, he published several volumes of predominantly lyrical and epic poetry every year. He soon became well-known and popular, one of the leading figures of literary life. He charmed his readers with an emotional directness and simple folk style, which flew in the face of poetic conventions at the time.
As a student, he resisted the authority of his teachers. As an adult, he revolted against tyranny and social oppression. The history of the French Revolution was his bible, his daily prayers were in the name of equality and freedom. In the spring ofrevolutions swept across Europe. He fought, incited and chastised, and his calls for a Republic state set him against some of his earlier comrades.
The real battle for Hungarian independence began in the autumn of To counter the successful offensive of the Hungarian troops, Emperor Franz Joseph requested and received the aid of the Russian Tsar in He proved to be a good soldier and rose to the rank of Major before his fall on the battleground.
He was buried in an unmarked mass grave. He was disarmingly honest, passionate, curious of everything, a rough diamond but a gentle soul, blessed with joy and humour, all of which qualities are expressed in his poems and which no doubt account for his wide appeal.
In the hundred years following his death, of his poems were published in 50 languages, with a total of 20, translations. Like his father before him, he studied for law degree.
He published prose writings as a student and his success led him to Pest in to work as an editor. During the struggle for independence, he supported the government in a journalistic capacity and was fortunate in avoiding reprisal following the defeat of the Hungarians.
From the early s onwards, he wrote unflaggingly and became a hugely popular and much published novelist and prose writer. A volume, special edition of his works was issued to mark the jubilee of his fifty years of writing in His imagination was inexhaustible, the intricacies of his plots are worthy of his greatest influence, Victor Hugo.
His amazing knowledge and material provides a solid base for his novels, which often play out in diverse and exotic places and different periods in history. His most important books brought to life the recent past of Hungary and his stories embodied the recollections of a nation.
He also worked over the inspiring ideas of the time The Dark Diamonds and in the lengthy and futuristic Novel for the Next Century successfully combined the idea of a political utopia with science fiction. His contemporary attitude to writing is demonstrated by his realism. Yet his characters are extreme, his heroes idealized so as to border credibility while their enemies are utterly mean and abject figures.
Generations grew up on his writings and unconsciously mastered his style. Written inThe Tragedy of Man was not only his most important work but unprecedented in Hungarian literature. Its hero is Adam, the biblical father of mankind who is expelled from the Garden of Eden and is led by Lucifer in a long dream through the ages. When Adam wakes from his dream, he is ready to throw his life away but hearing Eva tell him that she is expecting their child, he takes responsibility for his future.
He searched for answers to the important questions of his time, including the fate of his country. The Tragedy of Man was written to be read as a book but it was considered to have enough dramatic force to be presented on the stage.
The first production was in and has since been staged in one form or another in Hungarian theatres without a break. The first translation was not till the 20 th century, however. To date it has been translated into 20 languages in 80 different versions. The Conciliation of brought about a dual Austro-Hungarian State, which ensured more favourable conditions for the development of Hungary. Development was swift and by the end of the century Budapest had become the indisputable centre of Hungarian intellectual life.
This change was only later reflected in the themes of Hungarian literary works, however, as the main inspiration for poetry, novels and dramas in the second halt of the 19 th century was still rooted in peasant and provincial life and the rural gentry. The real revival of literature and culture at the turn of the century began with the literary journals and in the coffee houses of the capital.
Fromthe literary and critical journal West became the intellectual workshop of modern Hungarian literature. The greatest figure to rise from the West generation of writers was Endre Ady, the prophet of modern Hungarian literature.
He broke with the conventions of his time, dropping out of university to become a journalist. He soon became known for his committed, often radical articles. He went to Paris, then considered the capital of the modern world. It was there that his poetic voice found its true form. His volume of poetry New Verse caused an outcry when it was published in The conservative, literary critics attacked him for his themes, motives, poetic style, tone and whole way of thinking.
But those who sought progressive, new approaches saw him as the apostle of modern Hungarian poetry. New Verse was just the beginning. A collection of his work was published inentitled Leading The Dead and the final volume came out posthumously in The Last Boat. His critical voice on what it means to be Hungarian was also new. In his poems of war and revolution, his social sensitivity and political radicalism unveils the hypocritical world of the ruling classes.
His lyrics on the gods are a powerful manifestation of the individual. His conscious efforts to rejuvenate the visual landscape and language of poetry led to his trademark symbolist-impressionist-secessionist styles. His name is still synonymous with modern Hungarian poetry.
Blessed from birth, he came from a prosperous, middle-class family, was endowed with great charm, an agile and lively mind and a writing talent which brought him early and lasting success. A fashionable journalist by twenty, he was a popular figure among his colleagues and writers in the lively, bohemian world they inhabited. But he was acutely aware of what life was like in the poor neighbourhoods of the suburbs and not just the well to do, middle-class circles he revolved in.
Inhe wrote The Paul Street Boys, a story of adolescent boys from the suburbs who fight for the possession of the symbolic fortress of a timber yard, in which the fallible gain the upper-hand over violence and intrigue. The Devil reveals the spirit of Freud, while in The Guardsman the writer skirts the borders of the real and imagined, preceding Pirandello in the opinion of many.
He was master of creating suspense and knew how to blend surprising twists with witty and sparkling dialogue dry humour and subtle emotions. He was born in Kassa now Kosice in Slovakia to an influential, conservative, middle-class family with its roots in the Saxon nobility. He went to a Hungarian school but studied at a German university. He later lived in Paris as well, while working as correspondent for Hungarian and German newspapers.
Inhe returned home and earned his living in journalism for a long time, first at a radical, middle-class newspaper where he embraced liberalism and denounced the advance of Fascism. From the early s, he published one book after another. He received his greatest acclaim with Confessions of a Bourgeois, an autobiographical recollection of his childhood and youth.
This book condenses his strongest skills in its mercilessly accurate observations, tight structure and captivating style — a refreshingly elegant blend of impressionist strains and delicate musicality. His boldest undertaking was the trilogy of novels The Offended, the story of the Garren family, a portrayal of past and present Hungarian middle-class life.
One of the most successful books from the s is Embers. Compact and suggestive, it renders a belated and pragmatic account of the break up of a strong friendship. This novel has attracted great interest throughout Europe in recent years.
He became an American citizen but spent many years in Italy too. One of his most important forms of expression was his autobiographical writing; the diaries he wrote from until his death were subsequently published in book form. The darker side of city life was already a subject of prose writing at the turn of the century.
His mother tried to make a living washing for others but it was hardly enough with which to bring up three children and the strenuous work soon sapped her weak constitution. His first volume of poetry was published when he was just sixteen. Even then he used the entire range of poetic tools of his contemporaries and predecessors with amazing confidence. Very soon, he developed his own sure style. His tough, rebellious tone resulted in his having to leave university. Out of conviction for the cause of the movement, he accepted the role of poet-agitator, a thankless task and difficult genre, which nevertheless produced some noteworthy work.
He lived in poverty until his death but in the early s, particularly after the publication of a collection of poetry Bear Dancehe was recognized as an outstanding talent.
In the mean time, however, his mental health deteriorated. Neither psychoanalysis nor any other medical treatment could help him. He committed suicide one late autumn evening at the age of He was still passionately concerned about social and political issues but finally, his poetic voice reached more contemplative depths.
The dark period of the Communist dictatorship started in and continued till the uprising of Several brave writers and leading intellectuals played a key role in shaping events but after the defeat of the Revolution many were arrested, thrown into jail or forced into silence. His own peculiar brand of grotesque humour was already a characteristic of his writings, which were published in Sea Dance. After the labour draft and four years as a prisoner of war, the Socialist policies on literature embittered his life.
At first he made great efforts to fulfil these demands but he did not manage to avoid the painful ordeal of being silenced as a writer. Ten years of silence were imposed on him following his active part in the Revolution. He later adapted these into stage productions and they have since been presented on stages worldwide.
Init won him the Nobel Prize for Literature, making him the first Hungarian to be crowned with the prestigious literary laurels. He survived the terrible ordeal and returned home two years later.
He worked in a factory and as a journalist and from managed to earn a living from translating the works of Sigmund Freud, F. Nietzsche and Elias Canneti into Hungarian. The experiences of his adolescence took twelve years to write but he had to wait several more years before the book was first published.
As a form of self defence, he employs the tactic of remaining an uncomplaining figure amid the growing horrors and accepts life in the death camp as one variation of normal life. He succeeds in doing so to such an extent that when he finally returns home he hardly knows what to do with his new found freedom.
Failureset in the s, not only portrays the genesis of adversity in Fateless embedded in a fictive story, but also presents a parable for every form of totalitarian existence. The hero of Kaddish for the Child Not Born is also a victim of a lost fate, whose analysis of history brings him to the stark realization that his life cannot be lived, even indirectly, through his successors.
The point of this, he adds, is not to remove the memory of what happened but to understand: the scandal of the century was not an irrational phenomenon but very much a part of human nature. A sad truth indeed, but one which nevertheless fortifies our moral reserves.
He worked in various publications in the fields in which he studied. His life was not particularly eventful; he spent some years in writing scholarships in East- and then West Berlin but long ago withdrew to a quiet life in the country.
The essence of the atmosphere he creates in his novels are attributable to the discipline of his classical style, the well structured build-up of multiple complex sentences, the accuracy of form which allows for the polyphonic quality of his work and a tight narrative which unites unsparingly sharp observation with passionate confessions.
His first significant prose work The End of a Family Story is the story of a Jewish boy whose father is sentenced in the political trials, bringing a harsh end to the story of a family with a long history spanning several generations.
His foreign readers are mostly from German language territories but Book of Memories was well received in the USA with many critics declaring it one of the best novels in recent decades. After a difficult childhood, he became absorbed in his studies and had the opportunity of getting a university education as a mathematician.
During this time he published a few volumes of short stories, which introduced a new style of writing. Inhe burst into the literary scene with A Novel About Production A Short Novelwhich heralded the beginning of post-modernist Hungarian literature. The multi-layered skit contained in the title alone prepares the reader for the full arsenal displayed in the new trend. His lengthy novel Harmonia Crelestis attracted a lot of attention in Hungary and abroad when it was published in As history often rewrites itself, so he rewrites the events of the past and his family history.
The writer keeps us constantly alert and forced to take a standpoint. In return for our efforts, he compensates us with the joy of being able to take an active pleasure in art. The destructive forces of history have left little besides the memory of the rich legacy of medieval Hungarian art, but even the fragments that survive are of exceptional quality.
Even in the period following the Turkish conquest ofHungary was not in short supply of talent. The conditions for the development of an autonomous Hungarian culture were gained through a slow and painful process. Art schools and institutions were only established at the end of the 19 th century. Until then, those who wanted to devote their lives to art had to study in Vienna and Munich or in most cases, in Italy. With his captivating genre pictures steeped in the world of realism, he remains the most symbolic figure in Hungarian painting.
His fame and popularity was attributable in most part to the events of his life having risen from poverty and obscurity to become a member of the social elite in his time and his style — an almost photographic realism produced with perfectionism and dramatic appeal which enthrals even the modern eye.
The only comfort he had in this degradation was in his drawings. Although aided by a painter who had studied at an art academy, he mastered his art on an instinctive and autodidactic level. He abandoned his trade and earned his living by painting portraits. This was his first large-scale composition which depicts in allegorical form the tragic outcome of the —49 Hungarian Revolution and Struggle for Independence.
This picture also brought him recognition in Hungary. But he did not return to Hungary and the subjects of his paintings gradually changed: the realist genre paintings depicting everyday life in Hungary Woman with Brush-Wood, Churning Woman were succeeded by more high-minded compositions. He also went to Barbizon near the French capital, which was then a learning centre for great artists such as Camille Corot. It was here that his first natural landscapes were produced. He was no doubt aware of what the impressionists were aspiring to in the mid s.
When he returned to Hungary for a brief spell, he made a few paintings from the memory of his journey using the colours and luminescent sketchy style of the impressionists. He took another direction, however, conforming with the tastes of the elite and producing historical, drawing-room pictures, portraits, biblical and religious works Ecce Homo, Christ before Pilate in the styles of previous periods with the thoroughness and professionalism of an academic master.
This may partly be attributable to the fact that from the mid s, he was entrusted with painting the ceiling of the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna.
Inhe was commissioned by the Hungarian government to paint the symbolic scene of the Hungarian Conquest in the Parliament building then under construction, where the painting remains to this day. For many years, he cut a lonely figure struggling for his misunderstood principles but lived to enjoy the just rewards of his exceptional talent and ideals.
His career took an entirely different course, not having had to struggle to get a good art education. He enrolled at the Munich Academy but left in and continued to work in the Bavarian capital until By the end of the century, Munich became the main destination of aspiring artists, primarily due to its acceptance of modern trends. The openness towards new styles influenced Szinyei in his famous painting Picnic in Maywhich marked the dawn of a new era.
Its subject, a company of young people enjoying a picnic, not only pays tribute to the immortal art of his contemporaries eg. This painting, modern both in subject and style, was followed by a series of similar works. Szinyei holds an important place in the history of Hungarian art with his vision of depicting nature in an unaffected way in a style well ahead of his time. But this was also the tragedy of his fate: he was not recognized for his innovative approach.
Inhe married and withdrew to his estate where — feeling misunderstood by his contemporaries — he eventually abandoned painting. He only began to paint again inwhen painting out of doors in direct sunlight, an idea he had initiated, was an accepted art form. By then, his style had changed and he produced less interesting work. His inspiration waned in his old age but was compensated by the admiration of his professional contemporaries and the public. All his important works — from the dignified, seated woman in Lady in Violet to the late winter scene of Thawing Snow, from the murmur of Spring in Lark to the giddy heights of the new world depicted in Balloon — were later much praised.
The new generation of the fin-de-siecle were able to become directly involved in the modern movements during a revolutionary period of the arts. A graduate and member of a middle-class, provincial family, he was willing to give up his security when he decided to become an artist in After studying in Munich, he received a scholarship to Paris in After three years he was able to stand on his own feet.
Demonstrating the most progressive aspirations of the age, he created a world of symbolic and secessionist elements in his paintings. His dark tones, oblong pictures of slender figures indulging in reveries allude to the poignant secrets of life: desire and hope.
His acquaintance with the art nouveau patron and art dealer Siegfried Bing led to the portrait of the sculptor Aristide Maillol and illustrations, which Bing exhibited. At this time, he also met Lazarine Boudrion, who became his model and later, his lover and life-long partner. The paintings he produced in the early s were welcomed with interest in Paris but his later work, though more individual and striking, received less attention. The Count also had him design the dining room of his palace in Buda.
From this time onwards, he gradually changed his painting themes: which became dominated by the intimate scenes of the patriarchal representatives relatives and friends of the provincial lower middle-classes in their everyday occupations. He also began to use more oil colours and subtle tones in a style which suited the public taste. This resulted in a large exhibition of his work inwhich brought him long awaited recognition and financial security. For the most part, he spent his remaining one and a half decades painting likenesses of well-known personalities and tender female portraits.
In Brussels, many compared him, not surprisingly, to Henri Rousseau, as both men were drawn to the exotic. His early works — animal portraits in vivid colours — proved he was an industrious novice and careful observer. He learned about the role of direct sunlight in the plein-air manner, which drew him to develop his art on his life-long travels abroad. The places portrayed in the visions of this pure and romantic soul represent the past to us, but to those who lived there a reflection of a reality in which humanity and beauty have credibility.
His visionary pictures were foreign to the culture of his time and his eccentricity was the harbinger of the illness which gradually took hold of him and condemned him to loneliness. He studied in Budapest and Munich. He started with genre-painting but soon excelled with his dazzling portraits.
Within a short time, he received commissions for portraits from emperors, kings, presidents, government heads, church leaders and artists and thus immortalised the renowned figures of his time Leo XIII, Cardinal Rampolla, Francis Joseph, Emperor of Austria, William II, German Emperor, Roosevelt and others.
He visited many countries in Europe and finally settled in England, becoming professor at the Royal Art School in London from onwards. The population density was per sq km per sq mi. Since the early s, there has been a fundamental shift of the population from rural to urban areas. The urban growth rate has substantially slowed in recent years, with the UN estimating annual growth in urban areas at just 0.
The capital city, Budapest, had a population of 1, in that year. Sizable migration during the two world wars resulted from military operations, territorial changes, and population transfers. Peacetime emigration in the decades before World War I was heavy about 1, between and Emigration of non-Magyars was prompted by the repressive policy of Magyarization; groups also left because of economic pressures, the majority going to the United States and Canada.
In the interwar period, migration was negligible, but after many thousands left, despite restrictions on emigration. As a result of the October uprising, approximatelypersons fled Hungary.
Emigration totaled 42, between and By the s, emigration was virtually nonexistent; only persons left inaccording to official statistics. Between andsomeimmigrants acquired Hungarian citizenship, granted almost exclusively to ethnic Hungarians from neighboring countries. According to Migration Information Sourcefrom tothe border guards recordedcases of foreigners attempting to enter illegally, and 80, efforts to leave Hungary illegally.
These activities indicate Hungary's transit role in From Here The Tisza Across The Danube (János Háry) - Various - Traditions Of Hungary (CD) migration. Sincenet migration from the villages to the cities has decreased, from about 52, that year to 20, in SinceHungary has received nearlyrefugees, with major influxes from Romania in — 89 and the former Yugoslavia in — About 5, asylum seekers have been recognized as refugees since In the s Hungary provided temporary protection for over 32, Bosnians.
Most of these refugees resettled to another country or repatriated. The Temporary Protection status of some Bosnian refugees, who remained in Hungary in the latter part of the s, was withdrawn by the government in mid As a result of the Kosovo crisis, 2, Yugoslav asylum seekers arrived in Hungary, including 1, Kosovo Albanians. The organized voluntary repatriation of refugees began in Augustwhen the first Kosovars returned to their homeland.
At the end of there were 7, refugees and asylum seekers in Hungary. Asylum seekers were from Georgia and Turkey. InHungarians applied for asylum in Canada. As a member of the European Union EU since 1 MayHungary's migration and illegal migration border controls have tightened. According to Migration Information Sourceas of someforeign citizens with a valid long-term permit i.
This population amounted to 1. These changing waves of labor migration are also characterized by a new form of labor migration within the EU, termed "walk-over-the-border for employment," where workers seeking higher wages travel from one country to a neighboring one, such as from Slovakia to Hungary.
Ethnically, Hungary is essentially a homogeneous state of Magyar extraction. The census indicates that Hungarians constitute about Roma account for about 1. Ethnic Germans make up about 0. Hungarian, also known as Magyar, is the universal language. In About one million Jews lived in Hungary before World War II and an estimatedwere deported in to concentration camps.
According to estimates from the World Jewish Restitution Organization, there are between 70, andJews currently residing in Hungary. There are also seven Buddhist and five Orthodox denominations. There are three Islamic communities. A Law on the Freedom of Conscience provides for separation of church and state and safeguards the liberty of conscience of all citizens and the freedom of religious worship.
However, the state does grant financial support to religious denominations for religious practice, educational work, and maintenance of public collections. To promote further support of religious institutions, between — 99 the government signed separate agreements with the country's four largest churches the Roman Catholic, Jewish, Lutheran, and Calvinist churches and two smaller groups Hungarian Baptist and Budai Serb Orthodox.
The government also provides funds each year for the revitalization of churches based on annual negotiations between the Ministry of Cultural Heritage and the Ministry of Finance.
Transportation facilities have improved steadily since the s. Budapest is the transportation center. Inroads totaledkm 99, miof which some 70, km 43, mi were paved, including km mi of expressways. InHungary had 2, passenger cars andcommercial vehicles registered for use. As ofHungary had 7, km 4, mi of broad, standard and narrow gauge railroad lines.
Of that total, standard gauge lines accounted for the largest portion at 7, km 4, mifollowed by narrow gauge lines at km mi and broad gauge lines at 36 km 22 mi. Most freight is carried by trucks; railway transport is of lesser importance. The railroad and bus networks are state owned. Permanently navigable waterways totaled 1, km 1, mi inof which most were on the Danube and Tisza rivers.
In addition to the government shipping enterprises — which operate the best and largest ships and handle the bulk of water traffic — the Shipping Cooperative, an association of small operators, continues to function.
Inthe latest year for which data was availablethe merchant marine fleet consisted of 2 cargo ships with a total capacity of 12, GRT. Hungary had an estimated 44 airports in As of a total of 19 had paved runways, and there were also five heliports.
Ferihegy Airport in Budapest is the most important center for domestic and international flights. Inabout 2. Close to that site, at Tata, objects used for aesthetic or ceremonial purposes have been discovered, among the earliest such finds made anywhere in the world.
Celtic tribes settled in Hungary before the Romans came to occupy the western part of the country, which they called Pannonia and which the Roman Emperor Augustus conquered in 9 bc. Invasions by the Huns, the Goths, and later the Langobards had little lasting effect, but the two subsequent migrations of the Avars who ruled for years and, like the Huns, established a khanate in the Hungarian plain left a more lasting impression.
For half a century they ranged far and wide, until their defeat by Otto the Great, king of Germany and Holy Roman emperor, near Augsburg in They were converted to Christianity under King Stephen I r.
The Holy Crown of St. Stephen became the national symbol, and a constitution was gradually developed. The Magna Carta of Hungary, known as the Golden Bull ofgave the nation a basic framework of national liberties to which every subsequent Hungarian monarch had to swear fidelity. Hungary was invaded at various times during the medieval period; the Mongols succeeded in devastating the country in — Sigismund of Luxembourg, king of Hungary, became Holy Roman emperor inlargely on the strength of this national treasure.
During the 15th century, however, Turkish armies began to threaten Hungary. With the Turks temporarily at bay, the Hungarian renaissance flourished during the reign of Hunyadi's son, Matthias Corvinus — 90but his successors in the 16th century overexploited the gold mines, brutally suppressed a peasant revolt, and allowed the Magyar army to deteriorate.
Thereafter, warring factions split Hungary, but power was gradually consolidated by the Habsburg kings of Austria. With the defeat of the Turks at Vienna inTurkish power waned and that of the Habsburgs became stronger.
Inhowever, the Hungarian Diet accepted the Pragmatic Sanction, which in guaranteeing the continuing integrity of Habsburg territories, bound Hungary to Austria. During the first half of the 19th century, in the aftermath of the French Revolution and the Napoleonic wars, Hungary experienced an upsurge of Magyar nationalism, accompanied by a burst of literary creativity. Although Hungarian autonomy was abolished as a result of intervention by Austrian and Russian armies, Austria, weakened by its war with Prussiawas obliged to give in to Magyar national aspirations.
The Compromise Ausgleich of established a dual monarchy of Austria and Hungary and permitted a degree of self-government for the Magyars. InFrom Here The Tisza Across The Danube (János Háry) - Various - Traditions Of Hungary (CD), Hungary became a kingdom without a king; for the next 25 years, Adm. The Treaty of Trianon in formally freed the non-Magyar nationalities from Hungarian rule but also left significant numbers of Magyars in Romania and elsewhere beyond Hungary's borders.
The fundamental policy of interwar Hungary was to recover the "lost" territories, and in the hope of achieving that end, Hungary formed alliances with the Axis powers and sided with them during World War II. Hungary temporarily regained territories from CzechoslovakiaRomania, and Yugoslavia.
In Marchthe German army occupied Hungary, but Soviet troops invaded the country later that year and liberated it by April Ina republican constitution was promulgated, and a coalition government with Communist participation was established.
Under the terms of the peace treaty ofHungary was forced to give up all territories acquired after The Hungarian Workers Communist Party seized power in and adopted a constitution on the Soviet model in Hungarian foreign trade was oriented toward the Soviet bloc, industry was nationalized and greatly expanded, and collectivization of land was pressed.
Resentment of continued Soviet influence over Hungarian affairs was one element in the popular uprising of Octoberwhich after a few days' success — during which Hungary briefly withdrew from the Warsaw Treaty Organization — was summarily put down by Soviet military force. Many people fled the country, and many others were executed. Inthe New Economic Mechanism was introduced in order to make the economy more competitive and open to market forces; reform measures beginning in further encouraged private enterprise.
The movement toward relaxation of tensions in Europe in the s was reflected in the improvement of Hungary's relations with Western countries, including the reestablishment of diplomatic relations with the FRG in A US-Hungarian war-claims agreement was signed that year, and on 6 January the United States returned the Hungarian coronation regalia.
The New Economic Mechanism that had been instituted in was largely abandoned, at Soviet and Comecon insistence, a decade later. This compounded the blows suffered by Hungary's economy during the energy crisis of the late s, leading to a ballooning of the country's foreign indebtedness. This indebtedness was the From Here The Tisza Across The Danube (János Háry) - Various - Traditions Of Hungary (CD) engine of political change.
In Grosz and his supporters went even further, changing the party's name to Hungarian Socialist Party, and dismantling their nation's section of the Iron Curtain. The action that had the most far-reaching consequences, however, came in October when the state constitution was amended so as to create a multiparty political system.
Although Hungarians had been able to choose among multiple candidates for some legislative seats since as early asthe foundations of a true multiparty system had been laid in — 88, when large numbers of discussion groups and special interest associations began to flourish. In addition, parties that had existed before the imposition of Communist rule, such as the People's Party, the Hungarian Independence Party, and the Social Democrats, began to reactivate themselves.
All of these groups, or the parties they had spawned, competed in the general election, the first major free election to be held in more than four decades. No party gained an absolute majority of seats, so a coalition government was formed, composed of the Democratic Forum, Smallholders' Party, and Christian Democratswith Forum leader Jozsef Antall as prime minister. Arpad Goncz, of the Free Democrats, was selected as president.
An important indicator of Hungary's intentions came in Junewhen the remains of Imre Nagyhanged for his part in the events ofwere reentered with public honors; politicians and other public figures used the occasion to press further distance from Communism and the removal of Soviet troops. Another sign of public sentiment was the first commemoration in 40 years of the anniversary of the Revolution of Hungary's liberal investment laws and comparatively well-developed industrial infrastructure permitted the nation to become an early leader in attracting Western investors.
However, there were large blocs in society, and within the Democratic Forum itself, that found the pace of transition too slow, particularly since the government did not keep to its own time schedule. In addition to its economic demands, this radical-right contingent also has a strongly nationalist, or even xenophobic, agenda, which has tended to polarize Hungarian national politics.
There are also large Hungarian populations in neighboring states, particularly in Romania, all of whom had been declared dual citizens of Hungary in The appeal to "Hungarianness" has been touted fairly frequently, widening preexisting tensions within the dominant Democratic Forum party, and weakening their coalition in parliament. The Smallholders Party withdrew from the coalition inand in other elements were threatening to do the same. The Democratic Forum's loss of popularity was vividly exposed in the parliamentary elections of Maywhen the party, led by acting head Sandor Leszak, lost almost one-third of the seats it had controlled.
There was concern, however, that the Socialists' absolute majority could lead to a reversal of some of the important democratic gains of the recent past. Those concerns sharpened in Julywhen Prime Minister Horn unilaterally appointed new heads for the state-owned radio and television, who immediately dismissed or suspended a number of conservative journalists. In order to help them qualify to join NATO and the EU, Hungary and Romania signed a treaty on 16 September ending a centuries-old dispute between the two neighbors.
The agreement ended five years of negotiations over the status of Romania's 1. Despite improvements in the economy, the position of the Socialists was undermined by dissatisfaction among those negatively affected by privatization and austerity measures, as well as by financial scandals in In Hungary was invited to begin negotiations leading to membership in the European Union. It was formally invited to join the body in at the EU summit in Copenhagen.
It was accepted as a full member on 1 January Inparliament elected Ferenc Madl as president. Fidesz is a strong supporter of ethnic Hungarians in neighboring countries. Indeed, parliament in June passed a controversial law entitling Hungarians living in Romania, Slovakia, Ukraine, Serbia, Croatia, and Slovenia to a special identity document allowing them to temporarily work, study, and claim health care in Hungary.
In June the law was amended by the parliament, with a majority of the Hungarian population agreeing with it. However, the referendum held in Decemberin conjunction with this law, was invalidated due to low turnout. Although Medgyessy characterized his party as From Here The Tisza Across The Danube (János Háry) - Various - Traditions Of Hungary (CD), he stressed it was less extreme than Fidesz, and supported diversity as well as traditional values of fairness and social justice.
The campaign was divisive, and saw nationalists come out in force in favor of Fidesz. Although it won the largest bloc of seats in the National Assembly in the second round of voting aligned with the Hungarian Democratic Forumit was the Socialists in concert with the Alliance of Free Democrats that formed a coalition government with Medgyessy as prime minister.
In Juneallegations surfaced that Medgyessy had worked as a counterintelligence officer in the secret service under the Communist regime in the late s and early s. Upon his admission, his popularity soared. In the summer ofinternal problems within his own party, as well as growing opposition from the coalition partners — the Alliance of Free Democrats, led Medgyessy to resign.
He was replaced with Ferenc Gyurcsany, the former sports minister and one of the government's most popular figures. Gyurcsany received votes, while his main contender — Peter Kiss — got The new prime minister promised to strengthen the coalition, boost economic growth, and improve living conditions for Hungarians. However, strict budget controls many imposed by the EUand unfulfilled election promises dramatically decreased the popular support for his government, and party.
In Juneopposition-backed Laszlo Solyom was elected as the new president of Hungary. He garnered votes, in the third round of elections, followed closely by the Socialist's nominee — Katalin Szili — with votes. Hungary's present constitution remains based upon the Soviet-style constitution, with major revisions made in and The revisions mandated the end of the Communist Party 's monopoly on power, removed the word People's from the name of the state, and created the post of president to replace the earlier Presidential Council.
The present system is a unitary multiparty republic, with a parliamentary government. There is one legislative house the National Assemblywith members who are elected to four-year terms. The head of state is the president, who is elected by the parliament, for a five-year term.
InLaszlo Solyom — a university professor and former president of the Constitutional Court — was elected president by a simple majority of the legislative vote. The next presidential elections were scheduled for June The head of the government is the prime minister, leader of the largest party seated in the parliament. The prime minister is elected by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the president.
In the Antall government important ministerial and other posts were split among representatives of various parties. As ofthe prime minister was Ferenc Gyurcsany, a wealthy businessman and popular political figure.
Following the general elections of Aprilfour political parties were represented in the member National Assembly, split into two coalitions. This situation raised fears that Hungary was drifting into a two-party state, divided by ideology and personalities, instead of reflecting other interests not represented in government.
The predominant party is the Hungarian Socialist Party MSZPwhose government was toppled inbut returned to power inreceiving The party's platform indicates strong support for the market economy system, albeit with a wide net of social services.
It supports diversity in Hungarian society, as opposed to the center-right's more populist, nationalistic party Fidesz. Originally known as the Federation of Young Democrats, the party was formed on an anti-Communist platform by student activists and young professionals in During the s, it evolved into a mainstream center-right party and was renamed in This party was a liberal opposition party during the Antall government, with positions strongly in favor of closer integration with Europe, cooperation with Hungary's neighbors, and support for alien Hungarians.
In economic terms their platform is very similar to that of the MSZP, which was the basis of their agreement to enter into a coalition. However, their alliance had frequent disputes that in result undermined their political strength. The Hungarian Democratic Forum MDFwhich has been reduced to 24 seats, is a party of strong support for the ethnic minorities within Hungary. It is currently aligned with Fidesz. The party is populist in orientation, seeking to elevate "Hungarian values.
The next legislative elections were scheduled for April The Independent Smallholders' Party FKgPwhich held 48 seats in the government but no seats in the government formed inis a center-right party that seeks to ensure Hungarian interests in the From Here The Tisza Across The Danube (János Háry) - Various - Traditions Of Hungary (CD) of European integration.
It draws particular support from rural districts and among farmers. Other parties include the centrist Center Party and the communist Worker's Party. Hungary also has a noticeable "skinhead" movement, which has provoked fights and other disturbances, especially with Gypsies. Hungary is divided administratively into 19 counties, 20 urban counties, and the capital city of Budapest also has county status.
At the local and regional level, legislative authority is vested in county, town, borough, and town precinct councils whose members are directly elected for four-year terms. Members of the county councils are elected by members of the lower-level councils. Hungary also has provisions for minority self-government, which is not based territorially, because minorities live dispersed throughout the country.
Municipality councils must seek the approval of minority self-governments for matters affecting minority education and culture, among others. Cases in the first instance usually come before provincial city courts or Budapest district courts. Appeals can be submitted to county courts or the Budapest Metropolitan Court. The Supreme Court is basically a court of appeal, although it may also hear important cases in the first instance. As ofa new intermediate court of appeal was to be established between county courts and the Supreme Court, designed to alleviate the backlog of court cases.
The president of the Supreme Court is elected by the National Assembly. A National Judicial Council nominates judicial appointees other than those of the Constitutional Court. The state's punitive power is represented by the public prosecutor. Peter Polt was appointed as prosecutor general in The Constitutional Court reviews the constitutionality of laws and statutes as well as compliance of these laws with international treaties the government has ratified.
The 11 members of the Constitutional Court are elected by parliament for nine-year terms with a two-thirds majority; their mandates may be renewed in theory, but as ofthis had not happened in practice. InHungary had a total of 32, active personnel in its armed forces, including an army of 23, and an air force of 7, personnel.
The Hungarian Army operates main battle tanks, armored infantry fighting vehicles, armored personnel carriers, and over artillery pieces. The Air Force operates 14 combat capable aircraft, as well as 12 attack helicopters and 17 support aircraft. All major equipment is of Soviet design. There is a small Army maritime wing with 60 personnel operating three river craft to patrol the Danube River.
Paramilitary forces, consisting of frontier and border guards, under the direction of the Ministry of the Interior, number about 12, There are about 44, military reservists. Hungary provides UN observers and peacekeepers to eight regions or countries.
Before World War II, industrial growth was slow because adequate capital was lacking. Sincehowever, industry has expanded rapidly, and it now contributes a larger share than agriculture to the national income. The government has no capital investments abroad, but it participates in limited economic activities in developing countries.
Substantial industrial growth continued through the s and mids, but output in the socialized sector declined during — 80, and growth was sluggish in the s.
After the fall of Communism inHungary began a painful transition to a market economy. The rate of unemployment was ByHungary was in an economic slump unknown since the reforms toward capitalism began. The IMF directed the government to curb social spending, but restricting social welfare during a period of high unemployment was unpopular with voters.
As a result of the program, inflation and GDP growth rose. In the years since its implementation, the stabilization program has borne fruit.
Bythe IMF assistance had been repaid. The Hungarian economy exhibited strong growth rates with GDP increases of 4. Although a hard winter and the Kosovo conflict appeared to hamper Hungarian efforts to match the prior years' growth rate levels, the economy performed well inled by an increase in foreign direct investment.
Since then, manufacturing output and productivity increased, and export industries did well, although increases in wages and a rapid appreciation of the forint in moderated export growth. The global economic downturn that began in had an impact on the Hungarian economy, as GDP rose by 3.
Although this growth rate was higher than most European nations init was below the rate needed for Hungary to reach the wealth levels of EU countries. In DecemberHungary was formally invited to join the EU; it was accepted as a full member in May as one of the most advanced of the 10 candidate countries slated for accession. As an EU member, Hungary maintained its position as one of the most dynamic and strong economies in Central and Eastern Europe.
Its position within the European Union, and the fact that it is still comparatively cheaper to do business there than in other Western European countries, makes Hungary a prime target for investments. However, Hungary is being challenged by some of its neighbors that have managed to maintain lower labor costs, and a more attractive tax system.
Already some of the investments in the country have moved further east, to countries like Romania and Ukraine, and some of the bids for new investments have been lost for the same reasons. Although the GDP growth was slower in and 3. However, in order to catch up with the developed economies in the EU, Hungary should register according to the IMF specialists annual growth rates of 5 — 5.
This means that further investments have to be attracted to generate funds for the state. Consequently, the governments planned to sell Budapest Airport and Antenna Hungaria in Attracting additional foreign investments is increasingly difficult though, as the country has to fight with rather high budget deficits 5.
The CIA defines GDP as the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year and computed on the basis of purchasing power parity PPP rather than value as measured on the basis of the rate of exchange based on current dollars.
The annual growth rate of GDP was estimated at 3. The average inflation rate in was 3. It was estimated that agriculture accounted for 3. Household consumption includes expenditures of individuals, households, and nongovernmental organizations on goods and services, excluding purchases of dwellings.
It was estimated that for the period to household consumption grew at an average annual rate of 1. It was estimated that in about Hungary's workforce in was estimated at 4. Inagriculture accounted for 5.
Inthe estimated unemployment rate stood at 7. Before World War II, trade unions had not developed substantially; their combined membership was only about , principally craftsmen. After the war, the government reduced the number of the traditional craft unions, organized them along industrial lines, and placed them under Communist Party control.
Since wages, benefits, and other aspects of employment were state-controlled, the SZOT acted as a social service agency, but was dissolved in with the shift away from centralization to democracy. The National Federation of Trade Unions is its successor, withmembers in There are now several other large labor organizations in Hungary, including the Democratic League of Independent Trade Unions, with somemembers, and the Federation of Workers' Councils, with 56, members.
Labor disputes are usually resolved by conciliation boards; appeal may be made to courts. Sincemost unions have been hesitant to strike, preferring instead to act as a buffer between workers and the negative side effects of economic reform. Collective bargaining is permitted but is not widespread.
The eight-hour day, adopted in several industries before World War II, is now widespread. The five-day week is typical, but many Hungarians have second or third jobs. The law prohibits employment for children under the age of 15 and closely regulates child labor. Most workers earn more than this amount. Health and safety conditions in the workplace do not meet international standards, and regulations are not enforced due to limited resources.
More than half of Hungary's area lies in the Great Plain; although the soil is fertile, most of the region lacks adequate rainfall and is prone to droughts, requiring extensive irrigation. Insomehectaresacres of land were irrigated. Before World War II — 45Hungary was a country of large landed estates and landless and land-poor peasants.
Inthe government adopted a policy of collectivization based on the Soviet kolkhoz, and by the end of5, collectives, many forcibly organized, controlled Peasant resentment led to a policy change inand many collectives were dissolved, but the regime returned to its previous policy in As a result of the uprising, collectives were again dissolved; but a new collectivization drive begun in was essentially completed by Meanwhile, the proportion of the economically active population employed in agriculture decreased steadily.
Inagricultural employees accounted for Hungary has achieved self-sufficiency in temperate zone crops, and exports about one-third of all produce, especially fruit and preserved vegetables.
The traditional agricultural crops have been cereals, with wheat, corn maizeand rye grown on more than half the total sown area. In recent years, considerable progress has been made in industrial crops, especially oilseeds and sugar beets. Fruit production especially for preserves and viticulture are also significant; the wine output in was estimated at 48 million liters. That year, overtons of grapes were produced on 93, hectaresacres.
The principal field crops harvested in included in tons : corn, 8,; wheat, 6,; sugar beets, 3,; potatoes, ,; rye,Although animal husbandry is second only to cereal cultivation in agricultural production, the number and quality of animals are much lower than in neighboring countries. An inadequate supply of fodder is one of the chief deficiencies. In there were 4, hogs, 1, sheep,head of cattle, and 68, horses; poultry numbered 32, The out-put of livestock products was 1, tons live weight of meat, 2, tons of milk, and 5, tons of wool; egg production wastons.
Fishing was unimportant before World War II — 45but production has increased in recent years. The best fishing areas are the Danube and Tisza rivers, Lake Balaton, and various artificial ponds.
The catch is composed mainly of carp, catfish, eel, and perch. Forests totaled 1, hectares 4, acresor Because of the relatively small forest area and the high rate of exploitation, Hungary traditionally has had to import timber. During the s, a systematic reforestation program began. Reforestation affected abouthectares 1, acres during — 68 but only about 65, hectaresacres in — 74 and 64, hectaresacres during — From —somehectaresacres were annually reforested.
Roundwood production has remained stagnant in recent years, at 5, cu m million cu ft in Production of wood products in in thousands of cu m included: sawn wood, ; wood-based panels, ; paper and paper-board, ; and pulpwood, Privatization of agricultural land, including forests, finished in InHungary produced modest amounts of fossil fuels and industrial minerals, cement and coal being the dominant components of industrial minerals and metals.
Although the country had significant output of alumina and bauxite, the output of primary aluminum was modest, due to limited domestic energy sources. Construction aggregates and cement continued to play an important role in Hungary's economy, especially in view of the modernization process necessary for the country's infrastructure, for which planned highway construction through would be an important element.
Mineral reserves were small and generally inadequate. Bauxite mining and refining to alumina, as well as manganese mining, remained the only metal mining and processing operations in Hungary in Production of bauxite, found in various parts of western Hungary, wastons incompared with 1 million tons in Total resources of bauxite were estimated to be 23 million metric tons, with commercial reserves at 16 million metric tons.
Bakony Bauxitbany Kft. Hungary also produced 40, metric tons of manganese ore concentrate gross weight inup frommetric tons inandtons of gypsum and anhydrite in A total oftons of calcined lime were also produced that same year. In addition, Hungary produced alumina calcined basisbentonite, common clays, diatomite, kaolin, nitrogen, perlite, sand common, foundry, and glass and gravel, dimension stone, dolomite, limestone, sulfuric acidand talc. Although Hungary no longer mined copper, past surveys of the deeplying Recsk copper ore body, in the Matra mountains, discovered — million tons of copper ore at a grade of 1.
After failing to attract foreign investment, the exploration shaft and adit at Recsk was closed, the equipment removed, and the facilities flooded in Exploration for gold in the Recsk region continued inas 35 million tons of gold-bearing enargite copper ore was delineated with a grade of 1.
Hungary has modest reserves of oil, natural gasand coal. In addition, the country's electric power sector relies upon nuclear power to provide a sizable portion of its electric power needs.
InHungary's electric power generating capacity stood at 8. Electric output in came to Electric power consumption in totaled Imports and exports of electric power that year came to By the end ofall villages were connected with electric power. As ofmodernization was planned to extend the operating life of the reactors by 20 years. From policy point of view the development is ensured. The intention of this paper was not to discuss matters related to money. Questions about the reliability, affordability and sustainability of our energy future often boil down to questions about investment, especially, investment into research and development.
Representative study of the International Energy Agency IAEA shows that huge amount of money has to be invested into power sector, in the transmission as well as generation part. The investments are driven by the governments and not by the market. Obviously, the governments of the countries in the Danube region have rather limited means except of some!
It seems different countries develop the power system in different way. Unfortunately, the Danube region is behind the average, except of Germany and Austria.
It is really the future, but the recent situation is completely different. Figure 4 shows the existing and planned energy storage capacities in the US. As it is seen in Fig 4, there are many. This is a real option for some countries in the Danube Region, first of all for Austria. This type of storage is completely unacceptable in Hungary because of socio-psychological reason.
The recent business conditions are also unfavourable for building new pumped hydro storage capacities. Figure 5. Project investments into development of power system in European Union Source: Giordano et al. For each pair of countries, each common project has been multiplied with its corresponding budget and added together for obtaining an aggregated weight for the relationship between the pair. Thus, the matrix representing the cooperation links among the countries in European multinational projects has been obtained.
The resulting matrix is represented as a heat map the higher the budget, the stronger the links ; see Fig 6. Cells corresponding to country pairings represent the strength of the link between two countries. Considering this matrix, the Danube Region seems to be a geographic term only. Conclusion The energy system in Europe as well as in the Danube region requires urgent actions. The recent market situation and the current overcapacity are temporary.
Europe needs mega-investments to generation and transmission industry to More urgent, hundred thousand MW of thermal plants base-load has to be built up-to for ensuring the reliable supply. This is quite shocking, since we may think the investments have to go to increase the shear of renewables. The reason is the retirement of base-load generators and delay of expected deployment of a computer based new generation and transmission system.
The new system has to ensure the. Otherwise the Danube Region will be a pure geographic designation. References Giordano, V. The role of the user in demand side management. Rifkin, J. Abstract: Energy systems with high shares of renewable electricity are feasible, but require balancing measures such as storage, grid exchange or demand side management DSM to maintain system stability.
The demand for single balancing options cannot be assessed separately since they influence each other. The interdependencies between these measures are addressed with an integrated model of the European energy system in The model architecture allows for a detailed analysis of multiple parameters, which makes it possible to determine interrelations in the highly complex electricity system and to understand interdependencies between different balancing technologies.
This enables to identify the possible contributions of different technologies in single countries to the highly integrated European electricity system and to develop transnational strategies for implementing balancing options. To illustrate the possible applications of this model, a case study concerning pumped hydro storage PHS and the balancing demand in the Danube region has been conducted. By applying the model, the effects of large seasonal storage facilities in the alpine region Austria and Switzerland and the effects on balancing needs in neighboring countries of the Danube region are investigated.
The model is also used to determine the effect of increased grid transfer capacity on the utilization of these large alpine hydro storages in a European grid. Introduction By now, several studies are showing that high shares of renewable energy RE in the electricity sector are feasible [Feursch et al. But how much balancing options such as grid extension, demand side management DSM and storage capacities are needed to enable high shares of RE?
Grid extension will decrease the need for storage and DSM to some extent — but how. Energy storage and DSM are both suitable for a temporal shift of energy demand — but how does the implementation of DSM influence patterns of storage usage?
These and further questions are addressed in the RESTORE project1 by implementing an integrated model of the European electricity system for the year This is a multinode dispatch model, consisting of one node for each European country. With this model, the effects of different states of development of storages, cross-border-capacities, and DSM on the temporal hourly and spatial energy balance can be investigated.
To introduce this model and illustrate its application possibilities, a case study is conducted here which aims at answering the following questions: 1. How does the increase of grid transfer capacity influence the residual energy demand in Europe? Can the degree of utilization of large energy storage within the Danube region be increased by the extension of grid connection within Europe?
How does the utilization of DSM by electric vehicles in the Danube region influence patterns of storage use? Methods 2. The model and its basic architecture The Restore model has been developed to analyze the mutual interdependencies between different balancing options such as grid capacities, storage and DSM in energy systems with high shares of renewable electricity infeed.
Therefore spatially and temporally resolved input datasets are provided. For each European country, time series, covering ten years in hourly resolution, were developed for renewable feed-in provided by the University of Oldenburg and for electricity demand. The long time period of ten years was chosen to cover both, exceptional and unexceptional weather phenomena in the data set.
These time series are then scaled according to an existing third party scenario. These scenarios describe possible technical pathways and are meant to be a desirable system configuration inbut not a prediction. In addition, the potential for different kinds of storage and for sectoral DSM is analyzed for each country and prepared as model input by Next Energy Kleinhans The task of the model is to deploy the balancing options in order to match energy demand and renewable energy supply spatially and temporally, thereby decreasing 1.
Since the modeled European energy system is highly complex and diverse interactions are possible, an optimization is necessary in order to determine the best interplay between the balancing measures. The target function of this optimization aims at the minimization of the sum of positive residual load in all regions and time steps. The residual load is the remaining load after utilization of all fluctuating and controllable RE as well as available balancing options in all regions.
The remaining residual load, that cannot be covered by renewables, is assumed to be provided by fossil power plants. Here no further subcategorisation is made within the model since both analyzed third party scenarios assume solely gas fired power plants.
Their energy generation in this study is part of an ex-post analysis. The annual maximum power of the remaining residual load in each country defines the necessary backup capacity. Depicting Europe, and the Danube region in the model The energy system analyzed in this case study, includes nearly all Entso-e2 member states excluding Iceland, Cyprus, Malta.
Therefore these countries are modeled as single nodes, the remaining European countries are implemented in lower spatial resolution. Within each region, no transmission restrictions are considered. The following Table 1 shows the relevant characteristics of the regions.
Simulation configurations to answer the research questions In order to answer the research questions, a series of simulations is performed, in which the dispatch of flexibility options in the European energy system is optimized for a time period of one year in hourly resolution.
Each of the simulations represents a different system setup regarding the installed interconnection capacities between regions and the implementation of DSM measures. Spatial resolution of the European energy system in the case study 11 regions Table 1. System configuration of future energy system in No. The first simulation Sim-1 is the baseline scenario for this case study. Here, interconnections between regions are limited according to the data provided by the Ten-Year Network Development Plan ENSTO-Eincluding all mentioned projects, regardless of their actual development status.
Losses of the transmission lines are not considered in the model. As flexibility options, PHS and seasonal hydro storage plants are being considered in all scenarios. In simulation 2 Sim-2the system is optimized with unlimited interconnection capacity between all regions.
In a third simulation Sim-3the basic interconnection capacities are considered as in Sim-1but in addition DSM of electric vehicles EVs is assumed to be utilized only in the Danube region. For all simulations Sim Baseline, Sim Grid capacity increase and Sim DSM utilization performance indicators of balancing options as well as the residual load and necessary backup capacity are analyzed.
Configurations of simulation runs for the performed case study Simulation Parameter. Results and discussion 3. Residual load and excess energy in the Danube region The results of Sim 1 show the potential situation in Europe with the foreseeable minimum grid extension. Installed PHS capacity in this scenario does not differ significantly from today. However, the development of renewable technologies shows a strong increase of generation capacities Table 1.
In the overall system TWh of renewable electricity is generated. Here the resolution of the modeled regions is important. Since no transmission restrictions exist within the aggregated regions Baltic countries, Scandinavia, UK [including Ireland], Western Europe and Southeastern Europeshares of residual load and excess energy tend to be even higher in a highly resolved system. This above average share can partly be ascribed to the absence of offshore windpower in these countries.
The mainly solar and hydro based energy systems show increased fluctuation in comparison to countries with a high a share of near shore and offshore windpower. The increased grid transfer capacity in Sim 2 leads to a reduced residual energy demand in Europe of TWh — Sim 1. The excess energy is reduced by The absolute reductions of residual energy and excess energy are almost identical with around TWh each, since the high grid connections. With a reduction of Only storages and DSM are able to make this excess energy available by shifting the feed in of this energy or load in case of DSM in time.
By implementing the demand side management of EVs in Sim 3, another balancing option is analyzed. A reduction can be seen for single countries ranging from 0. The reason for this limited potential of DSM can be identified by observing the charging times of EVs. The potential is temporally varying, providing high load shifting capacities when many cars are connected to the grid at the same time. In times of high demand eg. Later at night, flexibilization is possible in both temporal directions.
Thus, the potential increases while the amount of cars is constant. Unfortunately, a time overlap of peak demand and low balancing potential leads to a limited effect on maximum residual load reduction. In contrast to that, applying the EVs DSM only in the Danube region results in a reduction of the excess energy of Here the potential of this DSM application can be shown, since the ability of a temporal shift of the charging process is very flexible with EVs, especially at night time, when excess energy is mainly produced.
Table 3. Model results for residual energy, excess energy and residual load in base scenario Sim 1 Source: own calculations Unit. As performance indicators the number of equivalent full load cycles N and the number of load changes change from charging mode to discharging mode are assessed from simulation results.
To compare storage units of different size, the capacity factor c of the storage units is calculated according to equation 1. Table 4 shows the results for PHS. This corresponds to the results of the analysis of residual energy demand. The patterns of spatial energy distribution of the grid and the temporal shift of energy demand do not influence each other significantly.
Only in regions with low transmission capacity eg. SKstorage utilization decreases because in Sim 1 situations of excess energy occur, that are caused by limited grid capacity. In Sim 2 these cases are not existed, due to unlimited capacity of the grid.
With the implementation of DSM in the Danube region Sim 3another balancing option is introduced, that also makes temporal energy demand shift possible. With their high balancing power but relatively small storage capacity, DSM applications act preferably as short term storage in the range of hours. For future energy systems with increased storage capacity it can be expected that this effect will become stronger, as DSM in other sectors such as heating and cooling may emerge and a pan European application of EVs DSM will lead to less balancing need outside the Danube region.
To analyse the impact of changes on the utilization of seasonal storage, the produced energy and the equivalent full load cycles are used.
Since all seasonal hydro storage plants are implemented, charging only via a predefined natural influx, these power plants are treated like controllable renewable energy units. The results show that neither the grid extension in Sim 2 nor the utilization of additional DSM in Sim 3 have any noticeable impact on the seasonal storage units.
Summary and Conclusions In an integrated, future European energy system with a high share of renewable energies, the role of countries within the Danube region will change significantly in comparison to today. The foreseeable grid extensions up to the year support the reduction of residual demand within the region.
Results of the performed simulations show that further grid extension helps for a better integration of the region without having a strong influence on the utilization of local storage units. Due to the fairly low resolution of grid interconnections, effects of grid extension could be shown on a qualitative level. To quantify these effects, simulations with much higher resolution are necessary.
The contribution of DSM in the sector of electric vehicles to the reduction of maximum residual load peaks is poor, since the match of temporal patterns of peak load demand and availability of battery power is disadvantageous. At the same time, sectoral DSM proves to be suitable to reduce excess power and thus decrease the overall residual energy demand.
As applications in different load sectors enter the market From Here The Tisza Across The Danube (János Háry) - Various - Traditions Of Hungary (CD) DSM eg. Heating and Cooling applicationsthis could enhance system stability within the region. A simultaneous development of intersectoral DSM and technical storage potentials may lead to a competitive situation of these balancing options, decreasing operation time of each technology.
Therefore the development of technical diversity, covering short term as well as long term storage systems appears reasonable for the Danube region. The central position on the European continent and the absence of less fluctuating infeed from near shore or offshore windpower compared to solar power makes a good grid infrastructure crucial for the Danube region in a system with high shares of RES. This effect is decreased to a certain extend by the steady availability of hydro power in the alpine countries and relatively high storage capacities.
By utilizing the available balancing options, this region will play a key role as link between. Acknowledgments The authors thank the members of the Restore project at Next Energy and the University of Oldenburg for contributing in form of theoretical support and providing RE infeed datasets. Conflict of Interest The authors declare no conflict of interest. References and Notes Fuersch, M et al. EWI, Cologne, Germany, Teske, S. Kleinhans, D. PDF download Abstract: In our paper we would like to give a short insight to the circumstances, possibilities and alternatives, which can promote or hinder the application of renewable energies in Hungarian medium size cities.
As a first step we analysed and compared the climate strategies of Hungarian settlements to European examples. The results show that the examined interior strategies contain almost the same adaptation and mitigation topics what we have found in the climate strategies of the European cities. However we still feel the differences! That is why we tried to unfold the main factors which are necessary for successful switchover processes on the selected settlement level, and explore how the decision makers thinking about the role of renewables, mitigation and adaptation in local space.
With the help of local experts and case studies we faced with several positive and negative optimistic and pessimistic factors, we identified basic problems but also good practices and we tried to outline and emphasize the usability of renewable energies for smaller populations. We hope that our specific results can help the local intentions, and give useful information and pointers for environmentallyconscious municipalities.
Keywords: climate strategies, renewable energies, medium size cities. Introduction Adaptation to the expected impacts of climate change becomes a central question in Hungary as well, which can be seen in different research projects, documents and institutions such as VAHAVA —National Climate Change Strategy I.
Hungary wants to achieve the EU expectations with operative programmes and tenders which connect to the — financial planning period. Together with this, Hungary is promoting struggle against climate change, wherein renewable energy sources come to the front. In the last decades our knowledge about climate.
Mankind has realised that it must face these changes SternCsete et al. Similarly to many countries of the word, Hungary recognized the importance of mitigation and adaptation to climate change.
All these are integral parts of the process to prepare the society for the challenges of climate change, and lead to energy efficiency, environmental urban planning and application of renewable energies. Therefore in our research we focused on the local answers for the challenges of climate change, climate strategies of European and Hungarian cities and focuses for renewable energy. Methods We used the following methods in our study: first, we reviewed the significant international results of climate protection, the main principles of climate policy in the European Union and Hungary, the existing research papers about the climate strategies of European cities and we analysed the climate strategies of the Hungarian medium size cities.
After that, we prepared experts interviews with the prominent persons who participated in the preparation of strategies or working in local climate associations. They have appropriate insight on the effectiveness of the local climate protection programs. The main aim of our work is to compare the climate strategies of medium size cities3 in the EU and Hungary and to investigate the possibilities of Hungarian climate protection, in particular with regard to renewable energies.
Since climate strategy is not a mandatory urban planning document, in the case of many cities it is only exist as a part of other larger urban document Integrated Urban Development Strategy, Environment Protection Programme etc. According to our experience, these strategies are not adequate documents, but sometimes more detailed than the earlier strategies; and in some cases concrete climate protection plans can be found in these programmes.
However, we used only separate climate or energy strategies, partly because of their international comparability, and partly because — according our preconception — these separate strategies may show stronger commitment towards adaptation.
In the Hungarian settlement geography, medium size cities usually defined as cities with 20— thousand inhabitants. We used different categories and defined medium size cities as cities with 10— thousand inhabitants. Result and discussion 3. Climate strategies in European cities The sustainability or its absence of the European cities has been in the focus of the attention, especially in the case of those cities which were affected by extreme weather events linked to climate change.
The first extensive European survey with consistent methodology has been made by Reckien and colleagues In this survey they investigated cities from 11 countries. They examined whether these cities have climate strategies or not, the content of these strategies whether they only include mitigation plan or contain elements of adaptation toowhat measures are mentioned and what commitments are present in these documents in order to reduce GHG emission.
The investigated cities comprised The examined cities had more than 50 inhabitants. There are significant differences between the countries. Adaptation plans exist only in connection to mitigation documents in every case. In both type of planning documents, the frequency of mentioned measurement were analysed Fig. The results of Reckien and colleagues show that there are significant shortcomings in the planning and preparedness of the European cities in relation to the climate change, and mostly only the larger cities targeted specific goals of climate protection.
This highlights that settlement size is an important differentiating factor in this regard, the medium size cities of Europe with a population between 50 and are less dynamic and innovative in the climate protection than the larger ones. Climate strategies and issues of renewable energy in Hungarian cities The local climate protection efforts in Hungary are mainly embodied in the climate protection organizations.
According to our research we must mention those recently active organizations which are able to mobilize both local governments and civil society. These include the Climate Friendly Municipalities Association with 18 mem. It is worth pointing out that although the areas of climate protection and energy efficiency are very close to each other, the overlapping between these organizations is minimal.
The number of Hungarian cities which have climate strategy is very low in international comparison. These documents only focus on water management issues like flood protection and rainwater management. Some of the other strategies put the focus on energy management and efficiency. According to the aforementioned Climateguide, the first and most important steps are revolving around energy, like founding local energy committees, creating an energetic database and preparing local energy-conceptions.
Almost all of the climate concepts contain the land- water- and forest- management, flood protection, heat and UV action plans, but the recommendations of the Climateguide also point out that in Hungary, local energy management and the increased use of renewable energy is considered as the most effective way to mitigate the effects of climate change. We also carried out an analysis of the targets of these documents to compare them to the international results Fig.
It can be seen that most of the local climate strategies contain almost every topics with the exception of the need for restructuring of the public services intermunicipal reorganization. This feature is an important difference between domestic and international climate strategies, which shows, domestic strategies consider every topics important in theory, but the realization is weak in practice in many cases. However, the presence of the topics does not reflect to the different emphasis each strategy has.
The analysed climate strategies pay particular attention to the question of energetics which supports our hypothesis that energy management is one of the most important topics for the settlements. These goals and objectives are related to the topic of mitigation, so it shows us that the current documents are emphasising the prevention of climate change instead of adaptation.
This is similar to the European experience. However there is a significant difference, because the integrated approach is common in Hungarian documents, and every strategy includes both mitigation and adaptation topics. According to national documents it can be concluded, that the first starting point is the energy efficiency. The use of renewable energies is the second step, but it should be incorporated into the local development if we would like to achieve visible results.
Based on the above mentioned experiences we examined the possibilities and hindrances of increasing the use of renewables. We have selected six settlements, where we analysed the local climate strategies and conducted interviews with the prominent experts on the subject. The experts also agreed on that energetics will have the most important role in climate protection in the future.
These experts work in local governments in cities with climate strategies. They were contributors in creation of climate strategies and they are the responsible of realization in it. They opinion not only a subjective opinion but represents a wider community. We need to understand that one of the key main causes of the climate change is the emission, which related to the use of fossil energy sources.
There are two different ways to cut down the amount of energy: reduce the use of energy or increase. In this approach it does not matter that the energy is come from fossils or renewable, because the reducing of emissions will be realised.
The possibility — that we decrease the emission with the use of renewable sources — is definitely positive, but currently this idea is not a priority for most municipalities. However there are some exceptions as good practises. There are among the municipalities who have been invested work and attention to create their own climate strategies. These settlements have confirmed the importance of responsibility, climate-consciousness and behaviour both in individual and municipal level.
With shaping attitudes the popularity of renewables can be enhanced. Following the climate-conscious comments; in our opinion the local governments, in partnership with the civil society can invest for green goals even though there is not enough governmental support or funding sources.
This is supported by economical calculations e. Eger which demonstrate the advantageous effects of energy investment opposite of investments such as other infrastructure. So the renewable energies probably have local benefits in long term consumption. In relation to economic sustainability, there is no consensus yet; the dilemma of solar energy use is a good example of it. It would mean that the use of solar energy would not take a break in Hungarian medium size cities.
This view is supported by the fact — which is a sceptical opinion of specialists —, that these energy sources would be used in a much larger volume, if climate protection and use of renewable energies would also mean significant economic savings and not only an environmental benefit.
Taking this into account, and on the basis of the climate strategies, the greatest possibility for energy saving is reducing urban electricity consumption in medium size cities. The existence of a modern, efficient district heating system is an important issue in energetics of surveyed cities.
Development of district heating is a possibility not only as a saving solution, but possible transition to renewable energy, which means geothermal energy and biomass mainly. Use of biomass — as renewable energy — for district heating is beneficial only in that case, if mining, primary processing and utilization are local. Also, biomass production requires an extremely complex care in landscape and environment.
Conclusions Sustainability, climate protection, energy management, renewable energy sources are closely related concepts. During our research we have tried to outline some important aspects of climate protection focused on renewable energy.
For this reason we analysed local climate strategies, possibilities, limits and other circumstances using the example of medium size cities with climate strategy in Hungary. Climate strategies assign an important role in the renewable energies. Despite, this way has too much difficulties, for example the policy about energetics. We should realize the fact: nowadays the nuclear power is the main factor in the energy management of Hungary. It seems that the use of renewable energy sources next to the conservative methods of energetics is limited to a rather narrow circle.
The environmental acts and the lack of financial resources are also make difficulties to transition for a new environmental paradigm. The current national practices have strong influence on local considerations.
The current price level of fossils is still lower, so the renewables are suffering from a competitive disadvantage, and the rate of investment are below than in other European countries with best practices e. Austria, Germany. In contrast to these facts some local social community and decision maker have realised, that energy saving may lead to financial savings and able to bring direct benefits to local governments.
This recognition put the energy efficiency, the improvement and modernization to the focus in this sector. The renewables can play an important role in this process, but the settlements have to keep in their mind that the use of renewable depends on local conditions, because the opportunities are spatial-specific.
Therefore the current reality is that renewable energy use is ranked behind energy savings and efficiency in the examined settlements and in the similar cities. However we are witnessing the transition to a new kind of energy thinking and management and the increasing popularity of renewables in several domestic settlements.
Many people have already strong confidence that the reduction of emissions and use of renewables can contribute to climate protection, and also lead to economic benefits in local scale. Albertirsa, Csete, L. Dulovics, D. Nerpel, B. DMRV Zrt. Reckien, D. Analysis of adaptation and mitigation plans from urban areas in 11 countries.
In: Climatic change, Stern, N. Municipality Climate Startegy. Szombathely, Tata, Municipality Climate Strategy. Abstract: In this paper, potential of renewable energy sources for Danube region in Croatia will be presented. Potential of solar energy, wind energy, geothermal energy, hydro energy and biomass energy for Danube region in Croatia will be shown in detail.
gic situation north of the Danube. In two Gothic groups came to 1 The common equation of these, respectively, with 'Visigoths' and 'Ostrogoths' is anachronistic. The question cannot be dealt with here, but the reader should note that s~~ndary authorities refer . Hungary’s Cultural relations with Ireland Ireland and Hungary have many similarities and undoubtedly, the rich cultural heritage is one of the national strengths of both of our countries. There is a strong level of mutual interest in the field of culture, whether it be music, . Kodi Archive and Support File Vintage Software APK Community Software MS-DOS CD-ROM Software CD-ROM Software Library. Console Living Room. Software Sites Tucows Software Library Software Capsules Compilation Shareware CD-ROMs CD-ROM Images ZX Spectrum DOOM Level CD. Full text of "A History of Hungary".
Portrait bust of Flavian lasbattnarposerbe.reureiranpatchcontdamrecavegekaci.co Empire. lasbattnarposerbe.reureiranpatchcontdamrecavegekaci.co was during the reign of the Flavian emperors hairstyles of aristocratic Roman women became most flamboyant, Such an elaborate coiffure required the attention of an ornatrix, a slave specially trained in the art Ovid scolded women not to neglect their hairstyle, choosing the one which best suits them, even though every day brings a new fashion.
An icon used to represent a menu that can be toggled by interacting with this icon. Start studying Eastern Culture and Civilizations: Unit Test. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.
Kodi Archive and Support File Community Software Vintage Software APK MS-DOS CD-ROM Software CD-ROM Software Library. Console Living Room. Software Sites Tucows Software Library Shareware CD-ROMs Software Capsules Compilation CD-ROM Images ZX Spectrum DOOM Level CD. Full text of " Counter-Revolution in Hungary".
Portrait bust of Flavian lasbattnarposerbe.reureiranpatchcontdamrecavegekaci.co Empire. lasbattnarposerbe.reureiranpatchcontdamrecavegekaci.co was during the reign of the Flavian emperors hairstyles of aristocratic Roman women became most flamboyant, Such an elaborate coiffure required the attention of an ornatrix, a slave specially trained in the art Ovid scolded women not to neglect their hairstyle, choosing the one which best suits them, even though every day brings a new fashion. Kodi Archive and Support File Community Software Vintage Software APK MS-DOS CD-ROM Software CD-ROM Software Library. Console Living Room. Software Sites Tucows Software Library Shareware CD-ROMs Software Capsules Compilation CD-ROM Images ZX Spectrum DOOM Level CD. Full text of " Counter-Revolution in Hungary".
Kodi Archive and Support File Vintage Software Community Software APK MS-DOS CD-ROM Software CD-ROM Software Library. Console Living Room. Software Sites Tucows Software Library Software Capsules Compilation Shareware CD-ROMs CD-ROM Images ZX Spectrum DOOM Level CD. Full text of "Hungary of to-day".
Shock Power - Trance (6) - Power Infusion (Vinyl, LP, Album), Dr. Chuds X-Ward - Diagnosis For Death (Vinyl, LP, Album), Lilla istus kammeris - Various - Eesti Rahvalaule Ja Pillilugusid 2 (Box Set), That Old Black Magic - Frank Sinatra - The Voice (Vinyl, LP), #09, Round Midnight - Miles Davis & Sonny Stitt - Live In Stockholm 1960 (Vinyl, LP, Album), The Power Of Our Love - Anny Schilder - The Best Of Anny Schilder (CD), Rapsodie Espagnole: Habanera - Maurice Ravel, Dallas Symphony Orchestra, Eduardo Mata - Orchestral M, Saiyan Rooth Gaye - Laxmikant Pyarelal*, Anand Bakshi - Main Tulsi Tere Aangan Ki (Vinyl), Sweet Memories, Smoke Gets In Your Eyes - Timi Yuro - 18 Heartbreakings Songs (CD)