What do rites of passage look like and how can we re-incorporate them into our society? In the posts that follow, I will explore the three most common steps of rites of passage — separation, liminal space, and reintegration — and offer ideas on how these might look in a modern society and how concerned males and females might work to provide safe rites of passage for younger males.
To providing positive rites of passage and safe, impactful initiations into the mature masculine for young males. Posted by matthewdeeg on March 22, in Rites of Passage. Tags: boysdevelopmentgenderinitiationmale developmentmasculinitymature masculinitymenrites of passage. I think it is only fitting, as I move on from this short investigation, to offer some reflection on the journey all boys must take as they grow up.
He has his parents first, then his mentor in Iron John. Even when he is sent Rites Of The Wild from the forest, Iron John still serves as a protector, stepping in if the prince needs him. So, too, in the lives on young boys today, their journey cannot be one of solitude. There are times when a boy must step out on his own, but he cannot be left to his own devices to develop his masculinity.
If left without parents or the key mentor sboys turn to one another for initiation, the blind leading the blind on the road to a false masculinity. Even without offering specific guidance, which I would highly encourage, parents and elders serve as models for what boys can hope to become. Giving a picture of the future is extremely important, especially in a long process such as this. While you may not agree that the steps follow this progression or must happen independently of one another, they are all important to the growth and development of manhood.
There are adult males who still rely on their mothers for care, comfort, and advice. Thus, the first two stages are extremely important, especially in a society where at college-age or closely after, children move away from home and strike out on their own. The male mentor is, to me, the most important phase. Skipping any of these steps will yield a separated man, incomplete and acting as such. As a boy grows up, he must begin to look inwardly, at his strengths and weaknesses.
The male mentor helps with this, as he shows the boy what he can become and helps him begin building the bridge to that greatness. The reflection is especially important as the boy tames the hurricane energy and marries the queen. Reflection gives direction, but it also gives hope and pride when you see where you were and are now. Even after going through all five stages, you are not done. Just as real leaders produce other leaders, real men produce other real men.
Why would you take a gift that you have and keep it to yourself. As a mature man, you have the honor, privilege, and responsibility to serve as a mentor to boys as they develop. If you are blessed with sons, you have even more responsibility to mentor and guide them in their growth.
Additionally, you cannot sit back and allow manhood to be corrupted by those boys who seek machismo without actual growth and development. Finally, you must fight against the injustices that are perpetrated by those false men. Wrapping up this series, if there is one idea I would leave above all, it is that this is a long, hard journey.
You cannot accomplish it alone, but there are many who would be willing to help. Seek out mentors. Serve as mentors. Be good fathers, mothers, and guides. My hope is that understanding the route you have to take will make the transition from boyhood to manhood just a little easier. Posted by matthewdeeg on December 30, in Rites of Passage. Tags: boysdevelopmentRites Of The WildgenderIron Johnmale developmentmanhoodmasculinitymenRobert Blyvirtues.
Then came the difficult part, separating from parents he loved so much and striking out into the world, relying on them for support, but not as the controllers in his life. This man became a trusted friend, ally, and champion for our young fellow, helping him to see his potential and then building a bridge to reach it. Along this path, he discovered that he has power. He touches on it briefly, but does not expound on it, leaving us to determine what it means.
This stage is the time when the young fellow comes into touch with his feminine side, when he sees patience, love, and tenderness not as things that weaken an individual, but things that strengthen and add depth to life and character. In this stage, our fellow almost seems to slow down, to begin to reflect on life, and to somewhat soften his approach to life. The young man who is marrying himself to the queen no longer sees things as masculine or feminine, but rather incorporates the best of all worlds and emotions into his life and habits.
This is a man who is truly in touch with his emotions, not just controlling them but also allowing them to be evident. Finally, this is a man who learns how to go deeper into himself and in relationships with others, to be vulnerable and open about his life and his struggles. In my work with fraternity men on a college campus, I have seen how difficult this final stage is. We still have a strict male code that attempts to define what masculinity is.
If we look at what society says, it offers a very one-sided view of what being a man is, that of running, hunting, fighting, going all-out and never crying.
And, thus, our boys are told how to be good at being a man. Is this enough? The latter is a tactical move, one sure to help men advance in society; the former, a way that society enslaves men into behaving a certain way. I see the former slightly differently, not that it enslaves a man, but that it gives a man a goal to reach. Yes, it is a fulfillment of a social contract, but we all ought to treat one another with love and respect. That is what marriage to the queen is all about: coming full circle from being good at being a man as society would define it to being a good man defined by the social contract that we have.
Rather, he seeks to be a good man. This throws out gender stereotypes, allows him to be sympathetic, to laugh and cry along with the highs and lows in life, and prompts a more dimensional version of personhood, one in touch with all his emotions and all his abilities. A true man is never a man until he realizes all aspects of himself. As our young fellow concludes his path, we must recognize that this journey is never finished. He may have realized his potential, harnessed his energies, and brought forth some that he never knew he had, but he still needs to continue to develop and reflect.
Men are ever growing, ever reflecting, ever revisiting these final three steps, speaking with their mentors, developing and harnessing their energy for good, and learning to be more compassionate, loving, and respectful men. Only then can they truly be that: Men. Posted by matthewdeeg on December 18, in Rites of Passage.
Tags: boysdevelopmentfemininitygenderinitiationIron Johnmale developmentmanhoodmarriage to the queenmasculinitymenRobert Blyvirtues. By my personal estimation, chronologically at this point, this boy is most likely no younger than 23 the average age of college graduation in the USalthough he may have accomplished the first three components more quickly given a focused upbringing and parents that did provide for several rites of passage.
Now we approach the final two phases, the first of which involves learning and harnessing those virtues and aspects we commonly associate with men and masculinity. Note: I recognize that all virtues can be held by either gender. I am merely attempting to provide a starting point for this conversation by outlining those virtues commonly thought to be masculine, as they are the ideas and virtues behind and fueling the hurricane energy we will speak about momentarily.
She states that. Only the emotions of contempt, pride, guilt, and loneliness are sometimes, but not always, expressed more intensely in words by men than by women. This phase is called apprenticeship to the hurricane energy. Previously, we saw the male mentor arrive and help the young boy understand how he can build a bridge to his greatness using his strengths and abilities.
Now, the male mentor the same, or another continues to help the boy grow through helping him to subdue or bring forth in a controlled manner those more aggressive traits and virtues he may have. The Warrior demonstrates appropriate aggressiveness. The Warrior seeks positive and purposive construction. Unfortunately, if this apprenticeship to the hurricane energy, this teaching of how to handle the more masculine virtues, is not undertaken, a boy runs the chance of falling to either side of the Jungian archetype, into the areas of either the sadist or the masochist.
Someone that does not know how to harness his inner energy will either become abusive to himself or to others in his life. What does this look like in the relationship with the male mentor? The male mentor must first be in touch with his own hurricane energy. If he does not have self-control which is ultimately at the root of this phasehe will be unable to teach his protege how to have self-control. I personally learned self-control through seeing the results of my actions on other people, as well as through the continued questioning of what use my anger and aggression might have in a given situation.
The goal here is not to eliminate the Warrior inside; it Rites Of The Wild to harness its energy to be used positively. There are many far older and wiser than I who have tackled this, and I do believe that this patience and contemplative spirit come with age as well as with training.
Still, the more we speak with younger males about the results of their actions or proposed actions and the more we allow for positive release of the hurricane energy, the more we allow for their development into true Warriors, not merely the hurtful shadows of the Warrior. These are the qualities of a true man and should be the end result of this fourth step, the apprenticeship to the hurricane energy.
To using our hurricane and warrior energy to positively construct and serve those around us. Posted by matthewdeeg on December 11, in Rites of Passage. Now we come to what I believe to be the most important phase of the journey: the arrival of the male mentor. In the fairy tale, Iron John serves as the male mentor for the boy. In this, Iron John also serves to help the boy separate from both his mother and his father. Once in the forest, Iron John gives the boy trials to undertake, focused on developing discipline for him.
When the boy fails the trials, in part due to wounds he received in the past the fairy tale demonstrates these as physical wounds, a sore finger; Robert Bly and I agree that most likely the wounds are metaphors for psychological woundsIron John sends him on his way, but promises to always be there if the boy needs help. From this portion, we see the primary characteristics of a mentor.
I will outline those, then describe my own experience with my male mentor which, I hope, will demonstrate the need. Finally, I will give some advice to those serving as mentors and to those who are being mentored. Although seemingly gruff, Iron John is a stellar mentor for this boy. He helps him to separate from his parents, something that before he arrived was seemingly impossible. As a boy matures, he is always looking for a hero, for a role model.
This is why boys idolize sports heroes, military men, and firefighters, or in the negative realm, gangsters, criminals. They are looking for someone to be their hero. Initially, this is their parents, but as they grow up, they need additional older external influences in their lives to help them develop into the man they will be. This is why mentors are so important. They turn to those that are a few years older than them for initiation and approval, something that those boys are also incapable of providing, thus wrecking the developmental process.
How many mentors should a boy have? To be well-rounded, boys need more than just one mentor in their life. Additionally, he gives the boy a sense of mission and purpose, assigning him a task to complete. When the boy fails, Iron John gives him two more chances. Finally, Iron John recognizes that the boy needs to go outside of the safety of the forest into the real world to make his own way.
A good mentor does this. But, and this is important, the mentor is always there, always available for advice and help. A good mentor is always there. I first met Kevin as a young undergraduate, who, if you asked the people around me, cared for only myself and was certainly not a mature man. Over the last five years, Kevin mentored and discipled me, teaching me how to be a strong Christian man, an honest and hard-working employee, and a dedicated and loving husband.
Our relationship began with him pushing and challenging me; then, as I learned and grew, we both sharpened one another. I referenced in the Separation from the Mother posting how Kevin helped me to established an adult relationship with my mother. Without Kevin, I would have let other year old males define what it means to be a man for me, something they had no experience in or knowledge of. However, from his example, I have some suggestions for older men who are serving or hopefully begin serving as mentors:.
You need to know your weaknesses and strengths. This means that you need to be reflecting as much, if not more than, your protege.
You would not believe how helpful it was to have Kevin be able to look deeper than what I was saying and identify where my thoughts and feelings were truly coming from. He saved me a lot of struggle and embarrassment by pointing out the root of some issues I was having. If you stop learning and reflecting, your protege can only grow so much.
Just because someone approaches you as a mentor, does not mean that you have to accept. You need to delve into the rationale behind it and make sure that you are the most beneficial person for them. This means that if you are a mature man who has come into his own, please, please mentor someone. Mentoring takes time and effort. For those boys who are looking for that mentor, I have four recommendations:.
Just as mentors should be selective, so should you. Find a man whom you respect and whom you have seen doing good in his workplace, his home, and his community. Show up when you say you will; come ready to learn and engage; and be open to knowledge. Yes, some mentors may come and go, but you need a male mentor who will be a role model and guide for you for a long time. For him to honestly guide you into masculinity, he needs to know your struggles, your interests, what you wish to become.
More than likely, he can help. A boy needs to learn how to be a man from multiple sources. His dad and mom are just two of these, and once he moves out from under their roof, he needs a mentor to guide him. If you are someone without a positive mentor in your life, I encourage you to find one. And, if you are a mature man respectful, reverent, and responsibleyou owe it to those who have mentored you and to all those who need men in their lives to be mentors, Rites Of The Wild.
To men stepping up, reaching over to younger men, and helping them up into masculinity. Posted by matthewdeeg on December 4, in Rites of Passage. Tags: boysdevelopmentgenderIron Johnmale developmentmanhoodmasculinitymenmentorsRobert Bly.
Navigating the Wild Providing guidance on the journey to mature masculinity. Home About Readings and Resources. A young male gets initiated. So what? Is it really that important? I argued in my last post that there are definite needs for rites of passage to mark the transition from boy to man. One major reason is the lessons that are taught. Beyond those included during the instruction in liminal space, there are several overarching themes that guide the transition process.
Leave a comment Posted by matthewdeeg on August 8, in Rites of Passage. The last year has been spent outlining the phases of a rite of passage as well as the concepts that define the mature masculine and ought to be taught in liminal space.
Why should we go through all this trouble to transition our boys to men and our girls to women? Why is creating the time and space for separation, reflection, and rejoining necessary? It is needed for several key reasons: 1. All of these components of the rite of passage into the mature masculine are important, but none is more important or more overlooked than the public re-integration and celebration of the new man.
This has and has had several detrimental consequences, chiefest of which might be a failure to fully grasp the responsibilities and requirements of men in a society as boys are taught what a man is by their peers, popular media, or by older males who happen to be in their lives. This type of education is rarely purposeful, prolongs adolescence, and has led many a male astray into that belief that manhood is the opposite of womanhood, when, in reality, manhood is the opposite of boyhood.
What is the remedy, then, for this lack of knowledge about the mature masculine, about what a man truly is? I return to my original premise and thought that we must incorporate rites of passage for young males to welcome and initiate them into the realm of the mature masculine. This post seeks to describe what that middle step might look like, knowing that the definition and expectations of men is quite wide.
To fully examine this idea of liminal instruction, we must first delve into liminal space. In studies of rituals and rites of passage, van Gennep and Turner both offered the idea of liminal space as the middle period during a rite of passage. This period is one of great ambiguity, one that literally means threshold. In Greece, Cybele became associated with mountains, town and city walls, fertile nature, and wild animals, especially lions.
The Roman state adopted and developed a particular form of her cult after the Sibylline oracle in BC recommended her conscription as a key religious ally in Rome's second war against Carthage to BC. Roman mythographers reinvented her as a Trojan goddess, and thus an ancestral goddess of the Roman people by way of the Trojan prince Aeneas.
As Rome eventually established hegemony over the Mediterranean world, Romanized forms of Cybele's cults spread throughout Rome's empire. Greek and Roman writers debated and disputed the meaning and morality of her cults and priesthoods, which remain controversial subjects in modern scholarship. No contemporary text or myth survives to attest the original character and nature of Cybele's Phrygian cult. Her name, and the development of religious practices associated with her, may have been influenced by cult to the deified Sumerian queen Kubaba.
In the 2nd century AD, the geographer Pausanias attests to a Magnesian Lydian cult to "the mother of the gods", whose image was carved into a rock-spur of Mount Sipylus. This was believed to be the oldest image of the goddess, and was attributed to the legendary Broteas. Images and iconography in funerary contexts, and the ubiquity of her Phrygian name Matar "Mother"suggest that she was a mediator between the "boundaries of the known and unknown": the civilized and the wild, the worlds of the living and the dead.
Anatolian elites sought to harness her protective power to forms of ruler-cult; in Lydiaher cult had possible connections to the semi-legendary king Midasas her sponsor, consort, or co-divinity. Some Phrygian shaft monuments are thought to have been used for libations and blood offerings to Cybele, perhaps anticipating by several centuries the pit used in her taurobolium and criobolium sacrifices during the Roman imperial era.
From around the 6th century BC, cults to the Anatolian mother-goddess were introduced from Phrygia into the ethnically Greek colonies of western Anatolia, mainland Greecethe Aegean islands and the westerly colonies of Magna Graecia.
She was readily assimilated to the Minoan-Greek earth-mother Rhea"Mother of the gods", whose raucous, ecstatic rites she may have acquired. As an exemplar of devoted motherhood, she was partly assimilated to the grain-goddess Demeterwhose torchlight procession recalled her search for her lost daughter, Persephone. As with other deities viewed as foreign introductions, the spread of Cybele's cult was attended by conflict and crisis.
Herodotus says that when Anacharsis returned to Scythia after traveling and acquiring knowledge among the Greeks in the 6th century BC, his brother, the Scythian king, put him to death for joining the cult.
The account may have been a later invention to explain why a public building was dedicated to an imported deity, as the earliest source is the Hymn To The Mother Of The Gods AD by the Roman emperor Julian. Cybele's early Greek images are small votive representations of her monumental rock-cut images in the Phrygian highlands.
She stands alone within a naiskoswhich represents her temple or its doorway, and is crowned with a polosa high, cylindrical hat. A long, flowing chiton covers her shoulders and back.
She is sometimes shown with lion attendants. Around the 5th century BC, Agoracritos created a fully Hellenised and influential image of Cybele that was set up in the Athenian agora. It showed her enthroned, with a lion attendant, and a tympanonthe hand drum that was a Greek introduction to her cult and a salient feature in its later developments.
For the Greeks, the tympanon was a marker of foreign cults, suitable for rites to Cybele, her close equivalent Rhea, and Dionysus ; of these, only Cybele holds the tympanon herself. In the Bibliotheca formerly attributed to ApollodorusCybele is said to have cured Dionysus of his madness. By the end of the 1st century BC, their rites In Athens, and elsewhere, were sometimes combined; Strabo notes that Rhea-Cybele's popular rites in Athens might be held in conjunction with Dionysus' procession.
In contrast to her public role as a protector of cities, Cybele was also the focus of mystery cultprivate rites with a chthonic aspect connected to hero cult and exclusive to those who had undergone initiation, though it is unclear who Cybele's initiates were.
Literary sources describe joyous abandonment to the loud, percussive music of tympanon, castanets, clashing cymbals and flutes, and to the frenzied "Phrygian dancing", perhaps a form of circle-dancing by women, to the roar of "wise and healing music of the gods".
Conflation with Rhea led to Cybele's association with various male demigods who served Rhea as attendants, or as guardians of her son, the infant Zeusas he lay in the cave of his birth.
In cult terms, they seem to have functioned as intercessors or intermediaries between goddess and mortal devotees, through dreams, waking trance or ecstatic dance and song. They include the armed Koureteswho danced around Zeus and clashed their shields to amuse him; their supposedly Phrygian equivalents, the youthful Corybanteswho provided similarly wild and martial music, dance and song; and the dactyls and Telchinesmagicians associated with metalworking.
Cybele's major mythographic narratives attach to her relationship with her son, Attis, who is described by ancient Greek and Roman sources and cults as her youthful consort, and as a Phrygian deity. In Phrygia, "Attis" was both a commonplace and priestly name, found alike in casual graffiti, the dedications of personal monuments and several of Cybele's Phrygian shrines and monuments. His divinity may therefore have begun as a Greek invention based on what was known of Cybele's Phrygian cult.
It shows him as the Hellenised stereotype of a rustic, eastern barbarian; he sits at ease, sporting the Phrygian cap and shepherd's crook of his later Greek and Roman cults.
Before him stands a Phrygian goddess identified by the inscription as Agdistis who carries a tympanon in her left hand. With her right, she hands him a jug, as if to welcome him into her cult with a share of her own libation. Attis seems to have accompanied the diffusion of Cybele's cult through Magna Graecia; there is evidence of their joint cult at the Greek colonies of Marseilles Gaul and Lokroi southern Italy from the 6th and 7th centuries BC. After Alexander the Great 's conquests, "wandering devotees of the goddess became an increasingly common presence in Greek literature and social life; depictions of Attis have been found at numerous Greek sites".
In the mid 2nd century, letters from the king of Pergamum to Cybele's shrine at Pessinos consistently address its chief priest as "Attis". Rome officially adopted her cult during the Second Punic War to BCafter dire prodigiesincluding a meteor shower, a failed harvest and famine, seemed to warn of Rome's imminent defeat. Roman legend connects this voyage, or its end, to the matron Claudia Quintawho was accused of unchastity but proved her innocence with a miraculous feat on behalf of the goddess.
Publius Cornelius Scipio Nasicasupposedly the "best man" in Rome, was chosen to meet the goddess at Ostia ; and Rome's most virtuous matrons including Claudia Quinta conducted her to the temple of Victoriato await the completion of her temple on the Palatine Hill. Pessinos' stone was later used as the face of the goddess' statue. Most modern scholarship agrees that Cybele's consort Rites Of The Wild son, Attisand her eunuch Phrygian priests Galli would have arrived with the goddess, along with at least some of the wild, ecstatic features of her Greek and Phrygian cults.
The histories of her arrival deal with the piety, purity and status of the Romans involved, the success of their religious stratagem, and power of the goddess herself; she has no consort or priesthood, and seems fully Romanised from the first. Some of Rome's leading patrician families claimed Trojan ancestry; so the "return" of the Mother of all Gods to her once-exiled people would have been particularly welcome, even if her spouse and priesthood were not; its accomplishment would have reflected well on the principals involved and, in turn, on their descendants.
Augustan ideology identified Magna Mater with Imperial order and Rome's religious authority throughout the empire. Augustus claimed a Trojan ancestry through his adoption by Julius Caesar and the divine favour of Venus ; in the iconography of Imperial cultthe empress Livia was Magna Mater's earthly equivalent, Rome's protector and symbolic "Great Mother"; the goddess is portrayed with Livia's face on cameos  and statuary.
Imperial Magna Mater protected the empire's cities and agriculture — Ovid "stresses the barrenness of the earth before the Mother's arrival. She gives the Trojans her sacred tree for shipbuilding, and begs Jupiter to make the ships indestructible. These ships become the means of escape for Aeneas and his men, guided towards Italy and a destiny as ancestors of the Roman people by Venus Genetrix.
Once arrived in Italy, these ships have served their purpose and are transformed into sea nymphs. Stories of Magna Mater's arrival were used to promote the fame of its principals, and thus their descendants. Claudia Quinta 's role as Rome's castissima femina purest or most virtuous woman became "increasingly glorified and fantastic"; she was shown in the costume of a Vestal Virginand Augustan ideology represented her as the ideal of virtuous Roman womanhood.
The emperor Claudius claimed her among his ancestors. The festival structure is unclear, but it included ludi scaenici plays and other entertainments based on religious themesprobably performed on the deeply stepped approach to her temple; some of the plays were commissioned from well-known playwrights.
On April 10, her image was taken in public procession to the Circus Maximusand chariot races were held there in her honour; a statue of Magna Mater was permanently sited on the racetrack's dividing barrier, showing the goddess seated on a lion's back.
Roman bystanders seem to have perceived Megalesia as either characteristically " Greek ";  or Phrygian. At the cusp of Rome's transition to Empire, the Greek Dionysius of Halicarnassus describes this procession as wild Phrygian "mummery" and "fabulous clap-trap", in contrast to the Megalesian sacrifices and games, carried out in what he admires as a dignified "traditional Roman" manner; Dionysius also applauds the wisdom of Roman religious law, which forbids the participation of any Roman citizen in the procession, and in the goddess's mysteries ;  Slaves are forbidden to witness any of this.
Along the route, rose petals are scattered, and clouds of incense arise. The Principate brought the development of an extended festival or "holy week"  for Cybele and Attis in March Latin Martiusfrom the Ides to nearly the end of the month. Citizens and freedmen were allowed limited forms of participation in rites pertaining to Attis, through their membership of two collegeseach dedicated to a specific task; the Cannophores "reed bearers" and the Dendrophores "tree bearers".
Scholars are divided as to whether the entire series was more or less put into place under Claudius,  or whether the festival grew over time. Significant anniversaries, stations and participants in the goddess' arrival — including her ship, which would have been thought a sacred object — may have been marked from the beginning by minor, local or private rites and festivals at Ostia, Rome, and Victoria's temple.
Cults to Claudia Quinta are likely, particularly in the Imperial era. The evergreen cones probably symbolised Attis' death and rebirth. Rome's strictures against castration and citizen participation in Magna Mater's cult limited both the number and kind of her initiates. From the 's AD, citizens who sought initiation to her mysteries could offer either of two forms of bloody animal sacrifice — and sometimes both — as lawful substitutes for self-castration.
The Taurobolium sacrificed a bull, the most potent and costly victim in Roman religion; the Criobolium used a lesser victim, usually a ram. The priest emerges from the pit, drenched with the bull's blood, to the applause of the gathered spectators. This description of a Taurobolium as blood-bath is, if accurate, an exception to usual Roman sacrificial practice;  it may have been no more than a bull sacrifice in which the blood was carefully collected and offered to the deity, along with its organs of generation, the testicles.
The Taurobolium and Criobolium are not tied to any particular date or festival, but probably draw on the same theological principles as the life, death and rebirth cycle of the March "holy week". The celebrant personally and symbolically took the place of Attis, and like him was cleansed, renewed or, in emerging from the pit or tomb, "reborn".
Some dedications transfer the regenerative power of the sacrifice to non-participants, including Rites Of The Wild, the Imperial family and the Roman state ; some mark a dies natalis birthday or anniversary for the participant or recipient. Dedicants and participants could be male or female. The sheer expense of the Taurobolium ensured that its initiates were from Rome's highest class, and even the lesser offering of a Criobolium would have been beyond the means of the poor. Among the Roman masses, there is evidence of private devotion to Attis, but virtually none for initiations to Magna Mater's cult.
Cybele's priests find Attis at the base of a pine tree; he dies and they bury him, emasculate themselves in his memory, and celebrate him in their rites to the goddess. This account might attempt to explain the nature, origin and structure of Pessinus' theocracy.
Pessinussite of the temple whence the Magna Mater was brought to Rome, was a theocracy whose leading Galli may have been appointed via some form of adoption, to ensure "dynastic" succession. The highest ranking Gallus was known as "Attis", and his junior as "Battakes". The following year, perhaps in response to this gesture of goodwill, the Roman senate formally recognised Illium as the ancestral home of the Roman people, granting it extra territory and tax immunity.
He would have cut a remarkable figure, with "colourful attire and headdress, like a crown, with regal associations unwelcome to the Romans". Yet the senate supported him; and when a plebeian tribune who had violently opposed his right to address the senate died of a fever or, in the alternative scenario, when the prophesied Roman victory came Magna Mater's power seemed proven. In Rome, the Galli and their cult fell under the supreme authority of the pontificeswho were usually drawn from Rome's highest ranking, wealthiest citizens.
As eunuchs, incapable of reproduction, the Galli were forbidden Roman citizenship and rights of inheritance; like their eastern counterparts, they were technically mendicants whose living depended on the pious generosity of others.
For a few days of the year, during the Megalesia, Cybele's laws allowed them to leave their quarters, located within the goddess' temple complex, and roam the streets to beg for money.
They were outsiders, marked out as Galli by their regalia, and their notoriously effeminate dress and demeanour, but as priests of a state cult, they were sacred and inviolate. From the start, they were objects of Roman fascination, scorn and religious awe. The religiously lawful circumstances for a Gallus's self-castration remain unclear; some may have performed the operation on the Dies Sanguinis "Day of Blood" in Cybele and Attis' March festival.
Pliny describes the procedure as relatively safe, but it is not known at what stage in their career the Galli performed it, or exactly what was removed,  or even if all Galli performed it. Some Galli devoted themselves to their goddess for most of their lives, maintained relationships with relatives and partners throughout, and eventually retired from service.
Some decades after Christianity became the sole Imperial religionSt Augustine saw Galli "parading through the squares and streets of Carthage, with oiled hair and powdered faces, languid limbs and feminine gait, demanding even from the tradespeople the means of continuing to live in disgrace".
Magna Mater's temple stood high on the slope of the Palatineoverlooking the valley of the Circus Maximus and facing the temple of Ceres on the slopes of the Aventine.
Wild Rites. Nulla quis lorem ut libero malesuada feugiat curabitur non nulla sit convallis quis ac lectus amet nisl tempus. Book A Session. My Specializations. Initiation. One of my primary passions is working with those who are seeking to be initiated into their life’s true path. May 03, · The film release of “Rite of Saturn” is slated for May 1st, , when it will complete the set of other rites available on Vimeo. As an added bonus to the films themselves, there are pre-show lectures by Thelemic authors Lon Milo DuQuette, Richard Kaczynski, and David Shoemaker, who present various topics surrounding the lasbattnarposerbe.reureiranpatchcontdamrecavegekaci.co in-depth lectures offer an educational review for the. The most visible of these is the lack of a distinct rite of passage for boys to become men. In their book “Wild Things”, Stephen James and David Thomas () tell us that “we cannot emphasize enough how significant these rites and rituals are in the lives of boys.
Paganism Eleusyve Productions completes cycle of Crowley’s Rites of Eleusis By Azure West | May 3, TWH speaks with Jon Sewell, who has just finished his two-decade project to create new productions of Aleister Crowley’s Rites of Eleusis.
The Wild Rites Saga book. Read 21 reviews from the world's largest community for readers. Magic is real? Big deal. Bills still gotta be paid. Especially /5(21). Jan 25, · Transition to womanhood: Wild rites of passage for girls around the world. 25 January As feminism continues to gain momentum globally, it’s hard to comprehend that, in some parts of the world, girls are still coerced to have sex with adult strangers or are banished from home during their periods. Nor is it conceivable why.
Jan 25, · The Serpent Priest (The Wild Rites Saga - Book 4) - Kindle edition by McIlwraith, Anna. Download it once and read it on your Kindle device, PC, phones or tablets. Use features like bookmarks, note taking and highlighting while reading The Serpent Priest (The Wild Rites Saga - Book 4).Reviews:
Paganism Eleusyve Productions completes cycle of Crowley’s Rites of Eleusis By Azure West | May 3, TWH speaks with Jon Sewell, who has just finished his two-decade project to create new productions of Aleister Crowley’s Rites of Eleusis. Jan 25, · The Serpent Priest (The Wild Rites Saga - Book 4) - Kindle edition by McIlwraith, Anna. Download it once and read it on your Kindle device, PC, phones or tablets. Use features like bookmarks, note taking and highlighting while reading The Serpent Priest (The Wild Rites Saga - Book 4).Reviews:
Many of her Greek cults included rites to a divine Phrygian castrate shepherd-consort Attis, who was probably a Greek invention. In Greece, Cybele became associated with mountains, town and city walls, fertile nature, and wild animals, especially lions. In Rome, Cybele became known as Magna Mater ("Great Mother").
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